Appendix: 

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Appendix 1: List of Symbols print file in PDF format

Symbol

Description

MKS Units

A

Area

m2

c

Speed of light in vacuum

m/s

C

Capacitance per unit area

F/m2

CFB

Flatband capacitance per unit area of a MOS structure

F/m2

Cj

Junction capacitance per unit area

F/m2

Cox

Oxide capacitance per unit area

F/m2

Dn

Electron diffusion constant

m2/s

Dp

Hole diffusion constant

m2/s

E

Energy

Joule

E

Electric field

V/m

Ea

Acceptor energy

Joule

Ec

Conduction band energy of a semiconductor

Joule

Ed

Donor energy

Joule

EF

Fermi energy (thermal equilibrium)

Joule

Eg

Energy bandgap of a semiconductor

Joule

Ei

Intrinsic Fermi energy

Joule

Ev

Valence band energy of a semiconductor

Joule

Evacuum

Electron energy in vacumm

Joule

f(E)

Distribution function (probability density function)

 

Fn

Quasi-Fermi energy of electrons

Joule

Fp

Quasi-Fermi energy of holes

Joule

gc(E)

Density of states in the conduction band per unit energy and per unit volume

m-3J-1

gv(E)

Density of states in the valence band per unit energy and per unit volume

m-3J-1

Gn

Electron generation rate

m-3s-1

Gp

Hole generation rate

m-3s-1

h

Plank's constant

Js

Reduced Plank's (= h /2p)

Js

I

Current

A

J

Current density

A/m2

Jn

Electron current density

A/m2

Jp

Hole current density

A/m2

k

Boltzmann's constant

J/K

l

Mean free path

m

L

Length

m

Ln

Electron diffusion length

m

Lp

Hole diffusion length

m

m

Mass

kg

m0

Free electron mass

kg

me*

Effective mass of electrons

kg

mh*

Effective mass of holes

kg

n

Electron density

m-3

ni

Intrinsic carrier density

m-3

n(E)

Electron density per unit energy and per unit volume

m-3

n0

Electron density in thermal equilibrium

m-3

ni

Intrinsic carrier density

m-3

N

Doping density

 

Na

Acceptor doping density

m-3

Na-

Ionized acceptor density

m-3

NB

Base doping density

m-3

Nc

Effective density of states in the conduction band

m-3

NC

Collector doping density

m-3

Nd

Donor doping density

m-3

Nd+

Ionized donor density

m-3

NE

Emitter doping density

m-3

Nv

Effective density of states in the valence band

m-3

p

Hole density

m-3

p(E)

Hole density per unit energy

m-3

p0

Hole density in thermal equilibrium

m-3

pn

Hole density in an n-type semiconductor

m-3

q

electronic charge

C

Q

Charge

C

Qd

Charge density per unit area in the depletion layer of an MOS structure

C/m2

Qd,T

Charge density per unit area at threshold in the depletion layer of an MOS structure

C/m2

Qi

Interface charge density per unit area

C/m2

R

Resistance

Ohm

Rn

Electron recombination rate

m-3s-1

Rp

Hole recombination rate

m-3s-1

t

Thickness

m

tox

Oxide thickness

m

T

Temperature

Kelvin

Un

Net recombination rate of electrons

m-3s-1

Up

Net recombination rate of holes

m-3s-1

v

Velocity

m/s

vth

Thermal velocity

m/s

Va

Applied voltage

V

VB

Base voltage

V

VC

Collector voltage

V

VD

Drain voltage

V

VE

Emitter voltage

V

VFB

Flatband voltage

V

VG

Gate voltage

V

Vt

Thermal voltage

V

VT

Threshold voltage of an MOS structure

V

w

Depletion layer width

m

wB

Base width

m

wC

Collector width

m

wE

Emitter width

m

wn

Width of an n-type region

m

wp

Width of a p-type region

m

x

Position

m

xd

Depletion layer width in an MOS structure

m

xd,T

Depletion layer width in an MOS structure at threshold

m

xj

Junction depth

m

xn

Depletion layer width in an n-type semiconductor

m

xp

Depletion layer width in a p-type semiconductor

m

a

Transport factor

 

b

Current gain

 

g

Body effect parameter

V1/2

gE

Emitter efficiency

 

d n

Excess electron density

m-3

d p

Excess hole density

m-3

DQn,B

Excess electron charge density in the base

C/m2

eox

Dielectric constant of the oxide

F/m

es

Dielectric constant of the semiconductor

F/m

mn

Electron mobility

m2/V-s

mp

Hole mobility

m2/V-s

r

Charge density per unit volume

Resistivity

C/m3

Wm

rox

Charge density per unit volume in the oxide

C/m3

s

Conductivity

W-1m-1

tn

Electron lifetime

s

tp

Hole lifetime

s

f

Potential

V

fB

Barrier height

V

fF

Bulk potential

V

fi

Built-in potential of a p-n diode or Schottky diode

V

fs

Potential at the semiconductor surface

V

FM

Workfunction of the metal

V

FMS

Workfunction difference between the metal and the semiconductor

V

FS

Workfunction of the semiconductor

V

c

Electron affinity of the semiconductor

V