This lab is to give you a chance to show off the skills you've obtained so far. Over the next two weeks, you will design, build and demonstrate an interesting project. The on-board resources you are allowed to use are as follows:
Basically, anything you can do algorithmically, you can do with combinational logic; however, it may take you a LOT of resources, and be very complicated to do a given thing combinationally. Recursive algorithms are especially intensive; you will have to "unfold" them, and then make separate logic for each iteration. Many things are actually easier to do in binary than in decimal, though it may take a while to figure out how to do them, and many a masters thesis has been written about how to do things efficiently (with fewer gates) with combinational logic.
You should be able to figure out how to do most any function you find on a scientific calculator. You have already figured out ripple carry addition and subtraction, and you can probably work out multiplication just from looking at how you would multiply two numbers on a sheet of paper (though it's in the book, as well).
As you will no doubt discover for yourselves, a web search will locate you complete diagrams for these simple functions. Word to the wise - it would be rather obvious from your implementation whether you made a design of your own or copied an "optimal" one from the web, so be sure to only use stuff you find on the web as part of a larger algorithm of your own design, and credit these "pieces" of your design to their original owners.
You can make most functions out of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, binary and, binary or and binary not, provided you have a working knowledge of Taylor series expansions. For example, you can probably see how you could make the exponent function:
e^(x) = 1 + x + x^2/(2!) + ...... + x^n/n!) + ...
or the sine function:
sin(x) = x - x^3/(3!) + x^5/(5!) - x^7/(7!) + ...
out of these pieces, though of course you will have to truncate the series, and getting real accuracy may take many more recursions than you might like. If possible, you would like to construct your pieces of a function like this so that you could re-use them for each level of the (unfolded) "recursion", for an easily scalable design.
Algorithms for calculating things like square roots, moduli, etc. can be found in textbooks or on the web. You're also always welcome to come up with your own. Once again, you may not be able to get great accuracy without using a lot of resources, but the point is to make a design you can implement and justify in your report how you would scale it up for improved accuracy.
Here's a few A+ projects that have been proposed in the past:
You should type up a (short) proposal for your project and have your TA sign off on it; this is due before you leave the first day. Your proposal should consist of three parts:
Other advice: Remember, while you may be able to copy a sub-circuit from a web page, it isn't worth as much grade-wise as designing it yourself. Save your design work to hand in with your report: you'll improve your score if the TAs are sure you designed any given subsection yourself. Also, what is important is that you use an algorithmic approach to solving a problem, and not so much how many bits of accuracy you achieve; try to squeeze out as much as seems reasonable to you, and no more (often an extra bit of accuracy will double the resources required for a project, and there is a limit to how much you can use on the FPGA!). Making your project scalable will help you a lot if you decide you need to remove or add precision later.
On the last day scheduled for this lab, you must demonstrate your design to your TA during your normal lab period. This demonstration will involve a brief discussion about the design of your circuit and your schematic, a simulation fo your design, and a test of its implementation on the FPGA board. You must supply operating instructions that are sufficient so that the TA could operate your circuit without your presence.
The TA will ask to run various test cases on your design. You should be able to apply these easily and also be able to interpret your results. You will be penalized if you do not know how your own circuit works.
There will be no late demonstations. In case of illness or other unavoidable absence, make sure that your partners write your name on the grade sheet.
You must submit a typed, professional quality report on your design. Emphasis should be on clarity and conciseness rather than length. Remember, an engineer knows his or her design is perfect not when there's nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away. Be efficient. The report is due one week after the demonstation. The report should consist of the following sections:
This project is worth 40 points, which will be distributed as follows:
Use this sign-off sheet when demonstrating your project.