and Transmission Lines
T Th ECEE 1B32
Office Hours: M 3:30-5:00, Tu 12:00-1:00, W 4:00-5:00, Th
10:00-11:00 and 4:00-5:00, or by
Page last updated 21 January 2015
has been pointed out to me that part (a) of problem p1-8 refers to a
result of the previous problem, but that previous problem is not
relevant to the solution of p1-8. In fact this is an error that arose
in my most recent editing of this chapter, and in fact you should be
using the result of problem p1-23 to solve part (a) of p1-8. I have
corrected this page (37) of the course notes here,
and you should substitute this for the old page 37.
Pocklington's article on propagation of a backward wave after the
source has been switched on can be found here.
And here is the movie I made from
Homework Assignments (and
Problems not found in the notes, and all of the
solutions, are in PDF format; download the
Acrobat Reader to read them.
|20 January 2015
|27 January 2015
This course is divided into three main parts. In the
first part (corresponding to the first four chapters of the course
notes), we will examine most of the basic concepts of guided waves
through their simplest prototypes: the properties of the classical
(distributed-network) transmission line with lumped elements connected
to it. In the next part (chapters 5-8 of the notes) we will deal with
various types of electromagnetic waveguides and transmission
lines—particularly their mode properties. These types include
traditional hollow waveguides, dielectric (including optical)
waveguides, printed transmission lines such as microstrip, and more.
As we do so, the features common to all varieties of waveguide will
begin to be apparent, and this will set the stage for the final third
of the course, in which we will study the problems of excitation and
scattering of waveguide modes; that is, how they act as
interconnecting parts of real systems.
General Course Information:
Your grade will consist (in
roughly equal weights) of three parts. The first is your grade on the
homework problems, which are assigned once a week and are due one week
later. The second is the mid-term exam, which is a take-home exam due
in class on Thursday March 19, 2015. The third part of your course
grade is the final exam, which is a take-home exam due at 4:00 PM on
Wednesday May 6, 2015: the nominal time and date of the in-class final
exam. The exams will consist of problems similar to those given as
homework during the semester.
is bound to be a certain amount of informal discussion of the homework
problems among students in the class. As long as this discussion does
not entail solving the problem for someone else, I have no objection
to it. In particular, I do expect that solutions to the same or
similar problems which may be floating around from previous semesters
are not to be consulted. I expect that any work turned in to me with
your name on it represents your unique write-up and understanding of
the solution to a problem, rather than a copy of some collective or
collaborative effort. For the midterm exam and the take-home final
exam, there is to be absolutely no consultation between students, past
or present. I will be available to answer any questions on
interpretation of the problems on the exams.
Some of the homework problems will
require (or at least be considerably facilitated by) the use of
mathematical software. There are many such programs available, and I
don't really care which one you use. You can consider MathCAD, Matlab,
Mathematica or Excel among the commercial programs, or the freeware
(see below). Remember, however, that I am not an expert in all such
programs (I have used MathCAD the most for my own work), so the help I
can give you in making any given program work may be limited. I am
always willing to give you what assistance I can within those limits.
The notes for this course are available
here . You
must use the username
and the password given out in class
or obtained from me during office hours. Be aware that the file is
large (about 6 MB); it can be read and printed using the free Adobe
Acrobat Reader software. Only the 2015 version of the course notes should be
used—significant changes from previous versions have been made. They
are intended to be essentially self-contained, but other books can
offer a different perspective on a topic that might be more
illuminating for some people than the one given in the notes. I have
therefore arranged to have the following books put on reserve in the
Engineering Library for this course:
Also useful are portions of the
online text Electromagnetic
and Antennas by Sophocles J. Orfanidis at Rutgers University.
- P. A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering: Passive Circuits. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
- S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery and T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in
Communication Electronics. New York: Wiley, 1994.
- R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering. New York:
IEEE Press, 2001.
- D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Please read the information on
disabilities, religious observances, standards of behavior and
Links and files of possible interest:
Postscript file of a complete Smith chart. If you are a Postscript
expert, you may be able to customize this to suit individual needs.
Postscript file of only the impedance or admittance grids of a Smith
chart (no captions or calibrations). Useful for programming directly
for graphic output, if you are a Postscript expert.
(né Hewlett-Packard) Application Note 95-1, "S-Parameter Techniques
for Faster, More Accurate Network Design", discusses S-parameter
techniques for designing networks used in amplifiers and
oscillators. The basic theory behind using S-parameters to
characterize any two-port network is presented, and the measurements
of s-parameters for a transistor are summarized. Examples of using
S-parameters to optimize amplifier and oscillator performance are
presented and the optimization of the power gain of a narrow-band
amplifier is used to illustrate the use of S-parameters and the
Smith Chart in network design. This application note is in Adobe
Acrobat (PDF) format and is bundled with QuickTime animations. It is
available for download for all major computing environments. There
is also an interactive JavaTM model that illustrates
basic techniques for using S-parameters in network design.
open source, digitizing software converts an image file showing a
graph or map, into numbers. The image file can come from a scanner,
digital camera or screenshot. The numbers can be read on the screen,
and written or copied to a spreadsheet." Very handy for comparing your
own calculations with those someone else has previously published only
in the form of a graph.
Freeware. From the website: "Create your graphs for scientific
publication with XL-Plot. It reads ascii files and it outputs a vector
drawing. XL-Plot is for Windows 2000 and later. The primary
purpose of XL-Plot is to create a figure for scientific publication
rapidly. It contains a few basic statistical functions, such as
Students t-test and linear correlation of two sets of data (two
columns in a spreadsheet). XL-Plot has a number of built-in functions
that can be fitted to the data in columns on a spreadsheet or to a
curve in a graph. The user can easily add fitting functions of his own
design.Additional options are Fourier Transformation, (de-)convolution
and Matrix inversion." It is a modest piece of software that does a
surprising number of tasks well.
command-line driven interactive data and function plotting utility for
UNIX, IBM OS/2, MS Windows, DOS, Macintosh, VMS, Atari (!) and many
other platforms. The software is copyrighted but freely distributed (i.
e., you don't have to pay for it). It was originally intended as to
allow scientists and students to visualize mathematical functions and
data. It does this job pretty well, but has grown to support many
non-interactive uses, including web scripting and integration as a
plotting engine for third-party applications like Octave. Gnuplot
supports many types of plots in either 2D and 3D. It can draw using
lines, points, boxes, contours, vector fields, surfaces, and various
associated text. It also supports various specialized plot types.
Gnuplot supports many different types of output: interactive screen
terminals (with mouse and hotkey functionality), direct output to pen
plotters or modern printers (including postscript and many color
devices), and output to many types of file (eps, fig, jpeg, LaTeX,
metafont, pbm, pdf, png, postscript, svg, ...).
freeware plotting program for Windows, concentrating on the display of
functions. This one can do 3D (surface) plots. It has some animation
capabilities as well.
freeware numerical mathematics program similar in many ways to Matlab.
It is available for Windows, Linux, Unix and OS/2 (this latter is no
longer maintained). May be worth a look, though I haven't really used
free mathematical software package for various Unix flavors and for
Windows, somewhat more advanced in capabilities than Euler.
From its website: "Scilab is a
scientific software package for numerical computations in a
user-friendly environment. It features:
data structures (polynomial, rational and string matrices, lists,
multivariable linear systems,...).
interpreter and programming language with Matlab-like syntax.
of built-in math functions (new primitives can easily be added).
graphics (2d, 3d, animation).
structure (easy interfacing with Fortran and C via online dynamic
(including sparse matrices, Kronecker form, ordered Schur,...).
LMI (Linear Matrix Inequalities) optimization.
and non-differentiable, LQ solver).
interactive environment for modeling and simulation of dynamical
(network analysis and optimization).
capabilities through Maple interface.
have not used it myself.
from Hewlett-Packard. Their Website description: "AppCAD
is an easy-to-use program that provides you with a
unique suite of RF design tools and computerized
Application Notes to make your wireless design job
faster and easier. AppCAD's unique, interactive approach
makes engineering calculations quick and easy for many
RF, microwave, and wireless applications. AppCAD is
useful for the design and analysis of many circuits,
signals, and systems using products from discrete
transistors and diodes to Silicon and GaAs integrated
circuits. The keyword for AppCAD is easy - no circuit
files, no manuals - just quick and easy."
atlc - Arbitrary Transmission Line
From their website: "Transmission
lines, including directional couplers, of arbitrary
cross section and an arbitrary number of dielectrics can
be analysed with atlc. The impedance Zo of a
two-conductor transmission line, as well as the
odd-mode, even-mode, differential mode and common mode
impedances of a directional coupler can all be computed
with atlc. Tools to both analyse and synthesise
directional couplers are available." atlc is primarily a
UNIX or linux program, but ports to many other OSs have
two useful Windows software programs for microwave and RF modeling.
Windows FDTD 1.10 Software is Finite Difference Time Domain software by
F. Kung for printed circuit board (PCB) modeling. "This software
can model propagation of electromagnetic wave in a three-dimensional PCB
structure, with lump components such as resistors, capacitors,
inductors, diodes, and bipolar junction transistors. Sinusoidal
and pulse voltage sources model are also included. The software
runs on Windows platform (Win95 and above), and requires minimum 64
MByte RAM. Included with this version are utilities to view the
output data and to draw the model." (FDTD) Windows Smith Chart/Impedance
Matching Tool (1.15) is a simple and intuitive tool for viewing an
impedance value in Smith chart. "The latest version also allows
the user to perform L, T, Pi and single stub transmission line network
interactive impedance matching/transformation. It is a versatile
tool, which can be used to teach engineers and students on transmission
line and impedance matching theory."
Fast Field Solvers
Windows software for the solution of Maxwell's
equations and extraction of circuit parasites
(inductance and capacitance), thanks to
which equivalent circuits can be
derived for simulation of e.m. behaviour of a
3D structure with SPICE-like simulators.
Common usages include the analysis of
connectors, strip lines, IC pacakges, ram
FEMM - Finite
Element Method Magnetics
Freeware. From the
reference manual: "FEMM
is a suite of programs for solving low frequency
electromagnetic problems on two-dimensional planar
and axisymmetric domains. The program currently
addresses linear/nonlinear magnetostatic problems,
linear/nonlinear time harmonic magnetic problems,
and linear electrostatic problems." FEMM is a
Windows program, useful for getting numerical
solutions of fields and line parameters for TEM and
quasi-TEM modes on transmission lines, among many
Free Windows high
performance Spice III simulator, schematic
capture and waveform viewer. Primarily
intended for applications using the company's
switching regulators, it is a very good
general-purpose SPICE program, including
transmission-line circuit elements.
- Multilayer Multiconductor Transmission Line Electromagnetic
Freeware tool for generating
transmission parameters and SPICE models from
descriptions of electronics interconnect
(transmission line) dimensions and materials
Puff is an MS-DOS
program for computer aided design and analysis of
RF circuits. It was originally developed at
California Institute of Technology (Caltech) by
the research group of Prof. David Rutledge. You
can freely download a copy of this program without
a manual. More information is available at the
Circuit Simulator; an open source
circuit simulator with graphical user
interface (GUI). The GUI is based on Qt®
by Trolltech®. The software aims to
support all kinds of circuit simulation
types, e.g. DC, AC, S-parameter,
Harmonic Balance analysis, noise
analysis, etc. It is available natively
for GNU/Linux, but is also ported to many
platforms: MacOS, Windows,
Solaris, NetBSD, FreeBSD, etc. Long-term
ambitions are grand, but even now it has
quite respectable capabilities.
Documentation is not quite as complete
as could be desired at this stage,
version of 3D Planar High-Frequency Electromagnetic Software. From the
web site: "Sonnet's suites of
high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) Software are aimed at today's
demanding design challenges involving predominantly planar (3D
planar) circuits and antennas. Predominantly planar circuits include
microstrip, stripline, coplanar waveguide, PCB (single and multiple
layers) and combinations with vias, vertical metal sheets
(z-directed strips), and any number of layers of metal traces
embedded in stratified dielectric material. The
Sonnet Suites develop precise RF models (S-, Y-, Z-parameters or
extracted SPICE model) for planar circuits and antennas. The
software requires a physical description of your circuit (arbitrary
layout and material properties for metal and dielectrics), and
employs a rigorous Method-of-Moments EM analysis based on Maxwell's
equations that includes all parasitic, cross-coupling, enclosure and
package resonance effects. Sonnet
maintains a single, dedicated focus on providing the industry's most
accurate and reliable high frequency planar EM software. Our
aim to is make it easy for our customers to either develop and
analyze designs within our software, or to incorporate our tools
into their existing design processes and frameworks. Customers
need never commit to a proprietary framework in order to get the
best in planar EM analysis."
TX-Line is a free, easy-to-use,
Windows-based interactive transmission line calculator from AWR. It can be used for the analysis and synthesis of transmission line structures.
TX-Line enables users to enter either physical characteristics or
electrical characteristics for common transmission media such as:
Grounded coplanar WG
TX-Line has an easy-to-use interactive graphical user interface and
runs on Microsoft Windows 2000/XP and later.