ECEN 5114
Waveguides and Transmission Lines
Spring, 2014
M W F 1:001:50 PM:
Fleming
102^{*}
^{*}(subject to change)
Prof. E. F. Kuester
kuester@schof.colorado.edu
ECOT 248
(303) 4925173
Office Hours:
M W 3:304:30, Th F 10:0011:00, or
by appointment
Page last
updated 29 April 2014
Links and Downloadable Files
Download Course Notes
Homework Assignments
General Course Information
Announcements
Homework Assignments
(and Final Exam)
Problems not found in the notes, and all of the
solutions, are in PDF format; download the
Acrobat Reader to read them.
Problems
Assigned 
Date
Due 
Solutions

p121,
p122

24 January 2014

p121
p122

p120, p123

31 January 2014

p120
p123

p210, p220

7 February 2014

p210
p220

p39, p316

14 February 2014

p39
p316

p42, p410

21 February 2014

p42
p410

p55, p520

28 February 2014

p55
p520

p513, p523

7 March 2014

p513
p523

p64, p620

14 March 2014

p64
p620

MidTerm
Exam

21
March 2014

MidTerm
Exam Solutions

p712,
p825

4 April 2014

p712 p825

p87, p813

11 April 2014

p87 p813

p96, p98

18 April 2014

p96 p98

p912

25 April 2014

p912

p106

28
April 2014

p106

Final Exam

6
May 2014; 4:00 PM at my office or mailbox


General Course Information:
This course is divided into three main parts. In
the first part (corresponding to the first four chapters of the
course notes), we will examine most of the basic concepts of
guided waves through their simplest prototypes: the properties
of the classical (distributednetwork) transmission line with
lumped elements connected to it. In the next part (chapters 58
of the notes) we will deal with various types of electromagnetic
waveguides and transmission lines—particularly their mode
properties. These types include traditional hollow waveguides,
dielectric (including optical) waveguides, printed transmission
lines such as microstrip, and more. As we do so, the features
common to all varieties of waveguide will begin to be apparent,
and this will set the stage for the final third of the course,
in which we will study the problems of excitation and scattering
of waveguide modes; that is, how they act as interconnecting
parts of real systems.
Your grade will consist
(in roughly equal weights) of three parts. The first is your
grade on the homework problems, which are assigned once a week
and are due one week later. The second is the midterm exam,
which is an inclass exam scheduled for Friday March 21,
2014. The third part of your course grade is the final exam,
which is a takehome exam which is due at 4:00 PM on Tuesday May
6, 2014: the nominal time and date of the inclass final exam.
The exams will consist of problems similar to those given as
homework during the semester.
There is bound to be a certain
amount of informal discussion of the homework problems among
students in the class. As long as this discussion does not
entail solving the problem for someone else, I have no objection
to it. In particular, I do expect that solutions to the same or
similar problems which may be floating around from previous
semesters are not to be consulted. I expect that any work turned
in to me with your name on it represents your unique writeup
and understanding of the solution to a problem, rather than a
copy of some collective or collaborative effort. For the midterm
exam and the takehome final exam, there is to be absolutely no
consultation between students. I will be available to answer any
questions on interpretation of the problems on this exam.
Some of the homework problems
will require (or at least be considerably facilitated by) the
use of mathematical software. There are many such programs
available, and I don't really care which one you use. You can
consider MathCAD, Matlab, Mathematica or Excel among the
commercial programs, or the freeware programs Euler and Scilab (see below).
Remember, however, that I am not an expert in all such programs
(I have used MathCAD the most for my own work), so the help I
can give you in making the program work may be limited. I am
always willing to give you what assistance I can within those
limits.
The notes for
this course are available for download
here . You must use the username
ecen_5114
and the password given out in
class or obtained from me during office hours. Be aware: the
file is large (about 4.8 MB), and a fast internet connection is
recommended. The file can be read and printed using the
free
Adobe Acrobat Reader software. Please be mindful of conserving paper and other
resources when using these notes: print only one copy for
yourself, and if at all possible, use a photocopier to make
multiple copies and share the cost with other members of the
class to keep costs down. Only the 2014 version of the course notes should be used—significant changes from
previous versions have been made. They are intended to be
essentially selfcontained, but other books can offer a
different perspective on a topic that is more illuminating for
some people than the one given in the notes. I have therefore
arranged to have the following books put on reserve in the
Engineering Library for this course:
 P. A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering: Passive Circuits.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1988.
 S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery and T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves
in Communication Electronics. New York: Wiley, 1994.
 R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering. New
York: IEEE Press, 2001.
 D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley,
2005.
Also useful are portions of the
online text Electromagnetic
Waves
and Antennas by Sophocles J. Orfanidis at Rutgers
University.
Please read the information on
disabilities, religious observances, standards of behavior and
academic integrity.
Links and files of possible interest:
A
Postscript file of a complete Smith chart. If you are a
Postscript expert, you may be able to customize this to suit
individual needs.
A
Postscript file of only the impedance or admittance grids of a
Smith chart (no captions or calibrations). Useful for
programming directly for graphic output, if you are a
Postscript expert.
Agilent (né HewlettPackard)
Application Note 951, "SParameter Techniques for Faster,
More Accurate Network Design", discusses Sparameter
techniques for designing networks used in amplifiers and
oscillators. The basic theory behind using Sparameters to
characterize any twoport network is presented, and the
measurements of sparameters for a transistor are summarized.
Examples of using Sparameters to optimize amplifier and
oscillator performance are presented and the optimization of
the power gain of a narrowband amplifier is used to
illustrate the use of Sparameters and the Smith Chart in
network design. This application note is in Adobe Acrobat
(PDF) format and is bundled with QuickTime animations. It is
available for download for all major computing environments.
There is also an interactive Java^{TM} model that
illustrates basic techniques for using Sparameters in network
design.
"This open source, digitizing software converts
an image file showing a graph or map, into numbers. The image
file can come from a scanner, digital camera or screenshot.
The numbers can be read on the screen, and written or copied
to a spreadsheet." Very handy for comparing your own
calculations with those someone else has previously published
only in the form of a graph.
Windows Freeware. From the website: "Create your
graphs for scientific publication with XLPlot. It reads ascii
files and it outputs a vector drawing. XLPlot is for
Windows 95,98, 2000 and XP. The primary purpose of XLPlot is
to create a figure for scientific publication rapidly. It
contains a few basic statistical functions, such as Students
ttest and linear correlation of two sets of data (two columns
in a spreadsheet). XLPlot has a number of builtin functions
that can be fitted to the data in columns on a spreadsheet or
to a curve in a graph. The user can easily add fitting
functions of his own design.Additional options are Fourier
Transformation, (de)convolution and Matrix inversion." It is
a modest piece of software that does a surprising number of
tasks well.
A portable
commandline
driven interactive data and function plotting utility for UNIX,
IBM OS/2, MS Windows, DOS, Macintosh, VMS, Atari (!) and many
other platforms. The software is copyrighted but freely
distributed (i. e., you don't have to pay for it). It was
originally intended as to allow scientists and students to
visualize mathematical functions and data. It does this job pretty
well, but has grown to support many noninteractive uses,
including web scripting and integration as a plotting engine for
thirdparty applications like Octave. Gnuplot supports many
types of plots in either 2D and 3D. It can draw using lines,
points, boxes, contours, vector fields, surfaces, and various
associated text. It also supports various specialized plot types.
Gnuplot supports many different types of output: interactive
screen terminals (with mouse and hotkey functionality), direct
output to pen plotters or modern printers (including postscript
and many color devices), and output to many types of file (eps,
fig, jpeg, LaTeX, metafont, pbm, pdf, png, postscript, svg, ...).
Winplot
Another
freeware plotting program for Windows, concentrating on the
display of functions. This one can do 3D (surface) plots. It has
some animation capabilities as well.
A freeware numerical
mathematics program similar in many ways to Matlab. It is
available for Windows, Linux, Unix and OS/2 (this latter is no
longer maintained). May be worth a look, though I haven't really
used it myself.
A free mathematical
software package for various Unix flavors and for Windows,
somewhat more advanced in capabilities than Euler. From its website: "Scilab is a
scientific software package for numerical computations in a
userfriendly environment. It features:

Elaborate data
structures (polynomial, rational and string matrices, lists,
multivariable linear systems,...).

Sophisticated
interpreter and programming language with Matlablike
syntax.

Hundreds of builtin
math functions (new primitives can easily be added).

Stunning graphics (2d,
3d, animation).

Open structure (easy
interfacing with Fortran and C via online dynamic link).

Many builtin libraries:

Linear
Algebra
(including sparse matrices, Kronecker form, ordered
Schur,...).

Control
(Classical,
LQG, Hinfinity,...).

Package
for
LMI (Linear Matrix Inequalities) optimization.

Signal
processing.

Simulation
(various
ode's, dassl,...).

Optimization
(differentiable
and nondifferentiable, LQ solver).

Scicos,
an
interactive environment for modeling and simulation of
dynamical systems.

Metanet (network
analysis and optimization).

Symbolic capabilities
through Maple interface.

Parallel Scilab."
I have not used it
myself.
Free from
HewlettPackard. Their Website description:
"AppCAD is an easytouse program that provides
you with a unique suite of RF design tools and
computerized Application Notes to make your
wireless design job faster and easier. AppCAD's
unique, interactive approach makes engineering
calculations quick and easy for many RF,
microwave, and wireless applications. AppCAD is
useful for the design and analysis of many
circuits, signals, and systems using products from
discrete transistors and diodes to Silicon and
GaAs integrated circuits. The keyword for AppCAD
is easy  no circuit files, no manuals  just
quick and easy."
atlc
 Arbitrary Transmission Line Calculator
From their website: "Transmission lines,
including directional couplers, of arbitrary cross
section and an arbitrary number of dielectrics can
be analysed with atlc. The impedance Zo of a
twoconductor transmission line, as well as the
oddmode, evenmode, differential mode and common
mode impedances of a directional coupler can all
be computed with atlc. Tools to both analyse and
synthesise directional couplers are available."
atlc is primarily a UNIX or linux program, but
ports to many other OSs have been made.
Presents two useful Windows software
programs for microwave and RF modeling. Windows FDTD 1.10 Software
is Finite Difference Time Domain software by F. Kung for printed
circuit board (PCB) modeling. "This software can model
propagation of electromagnetic wave in a threedimensional PCB
structure, with lump components such as resistors, capacitors,
inductors, diodes, and bipolar junction transistors.
Sinusoidal and pulse voltage sources model are also
included. The software runs on Windows platform (Win95 and
above), and requires minimum 64 MByte RAM. Included with
this version are utilities to view the output data and to draw the
model." (FDTD) Windows Smith Chart/Impedance Matching Tool (1.15)
is a simple and intuitive tool for viewing an impedance value in
Smith chart. "The latest version also allows the user to
perform L, T, Pi and single stub transmission line network
interactive impedance matching/transformation. It is a
versatile tool, which can be used to teach engineers and students
on transmission line and impedance matching theory."
Fast Field
Solvers
Freeware
Windows software for the solution of
Maxwell's equations and extraction of
circuit parasites (inductance and
capacitance), thanks to
which equivalent circuits can
be derived for simulation of e.m.
behaviour of a 3D structure with
SPICElike simulators. Common usages
include the analysis of connectors,
strip lines, IC pacakges, ram cells,
etc.
FEMM 
Finite Element Method Magnetics
Freeware. From
the reference manual: "FEMM is a
suite of programs for solving low frequency
electromagnetic problems on twodimensional
planar and axisymmetric domains. The program
currently addresses linear/nonlinear
magnetostatic problems, linear/nonlinear
time harmonic magnetic problems, and linear
electrostatic problems." FEMM is a Windows
program, useful for getting numerical
solutions of fields and line parameters for
TEM and quasiTEM modes on transmission
lines, among many possible applications.
LTSpice
IV
Free
Windows high performance Spice III
simulator, schematic capture and
waveform viewer. Primarily intended for
applications using the company's
switching regulators, it is a very good
generalpurpose SPICE program, including
transmissionline circuit elements.
MMTL  Multilayer
Multiconductor Transmission Line Electromagnetic Modeling
Tools
Freeware tool for generating
transmission parameters and SPICE models from
descriptions of electronics interconnect
(transmission line) dimensions and materials
properties.
PUFF
Puff is an
MSDOS program for computer aided design
and analysis of RF circuits. It was
originally developed at California
Institute of Technology (Caltech) by the
research group of Prof. David Rutledge.
You can freely download a copy of this
program without a manual. More information
is available at the
Caltech website.
Qucs
Quite
Universal
Circuit Simulator; an open
source circuit simulator with
graphical user interface (GUI).
The GUI is based on Qt® by
Trolltech®. The software aims to
support all kinds of circuit
simulation types, e.g. DC, AC,
Sparameter, Harmonic Balance
analysis, noise analysis, etc.
It is available natively for
GNU/Linux, but is also ported to
many
other
platforms: MacOS, Windows,
Solaris, NetBSD, FreeBSD, etc.
Longterm ambitions are grand,
but even now it has quite
respectable capabilities.
Documentation is not quite as
complete as could be desired at
this stage, however.
Sonnet
Lite
Free,
featurelimited version of 3D Planar HighFrequency
Electromagnetic Software. From the web site: "Sonnet's suites of highfrequency electromagnetic
(EM) Software are aimed at today's demanding design challenges
involving predominantly planar (3D planar) circuits and
antennas. Predominantly planar circuits include microstrip,
stripline, coplanar waveguide, PCB (single and multiple
layers) and combinations with vias, vertical metal sheets
(zdirected strips), and any number of layers of metal traces
embedded in stratified dielectric material. The Sonnet Suites develop precise RF models (S,
Y, Zparameters or extracted SPICE model) for planar circuits
and antennas. The software requires a physical
description of your circuit (arbitrary layout and material
properties for metal and dielectrics), and employs a rigorous
MethodofMoments EM analysis based on Maxwell's equations
that includes all parasitic, crosscoupling, enclosure and
package resonance effects. Sonnet
maintains a single, dedicated focus on providing the
industry's most accurate and reliable high frequency planar EM
software. Our aim to is make it easy for our customers
to either develop and analyze designs within our software, or
to incorporate our tools into their existing design processes
and frameworks. Customers need never commit to a
proprietary framework in order to get the best in planar EM
analysis."
TXLine
is
a free, easytouse, Windowsbased interactive transmission line
calculator from
AWR. It can be used for the analysis and synthesis of transmission line
structures. TXLine enables users to enter either physical
characteristics or electrical characteristics for common
transmission media such as:
Microstrip
Stripline
Coplanar waveguide
Grounded coplanar WG
Slotline
TXLine has an easytouse interactive graphical user interface
and runs on Microsoft Windows 2000/XP.